Although everyone is aware that C++ and Java are both object-oriented programming languages, they differ in several ways. C++ is a C language derivative that combines object-oriented and procedural programming features. C++ is primarily intended for application and system development. In contrast, Java is intended for virtual machines that include entire libraries to support existing platforms. Java is primarily intended for application program that require the capabilities of an interpreter. Still, it is also intended for network computing.
Let’s have a look at some of the key differences between C++ and Java in more extensive manner. Learning C++ and Java will provide you with a fundamental understanding of programming. As a result, anyone new to programming should start with either or both of these two languages before moving on to other languages and technologies. This is why, in schools and institutions that teach programming, C++ and/or Java are required subjects so that students may understand what the C programming language is.
What exactly is the Java programming language?
Java is an extremely capable general-purpose programming language. It is used to create mobile and desktop applications, as well as big data processing and integrated systems. Oracle, the firm that owns Java, claims that Java is used on 3 billion devices worldwide, making it one of the most popular programming languages, you can hire Java developers through staff augmentation services.
Sun Microsystems created the Java programming language, which was pioneered by James Gosling and introduced in 1995 as a key component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. Java SE 8 is the most recent version of Java Standard Edition. Morever, with the growth of Java and its widespread appeal, numerous configurations were developed to accommodate various sorts of platforms. J2EE, for example, is used for enterprise applications, while J2ME is used for mobile apps.
What exactly is the C++ programming language?
C++ is a computer programming language that incorporates the C programming language’s foundation as well as Simula67 (the first object-oriented language). The concepts of class and object were introduced in C++.
It encompasses both high- and low-level linguistic elements. As a result, it is classified as an intermediate language. First, it will be called “C with Classes” because it contains all of the characteristics of the C programming language.
Bjarne Stroustrup created the C++ programmers language at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Stroustrup was a big fan of C and a big fan of Simula67. He wished to incorporate the best of both languages. He was attempting to design a language that allows object-oriented programming while retaining the capability of C. C++ is the end result.
Differences between Java and C++
The following are some significant difference between the two languages.
1. Design Objectives
C++ is an extension of the C programming language that was created for system and application development, such as infrastructure programming. C++ brought support for “object-oriented programming,” “template metaprogramming,” “generic programming,” and a “C++ programming library” that includes generic containers, algorythms and a few more general-purpose facilities to C.
In contrast, Java is a general-purpose, class-based programming language that is intended to be user-friendly and comprehensible to a wide range of consumers. Its usefulness is based on the Java Virtual Machine, and it also contains an infinite library to enable full abstraction.
In C++, “pointers” can be used directly as memory address values, whereas Java references do not allow direct access to a memory address for pointer arithmetic. In C++, pointers to pointers, int and double pointers, and pointers to arbitrary memory locations can be established, but Java only accesses objects, not primitive references or random memory locations.
3. Duration of operation
C++ is faster than Java because it is compiled directly to machine code, which is then executed by its central processing unit, whereas Java code is translated into byte-code before being interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine at runtime. Although actual Java implementations use “just-in-time compilation” to native machine code, when comparing the two languages in terms of safety, Java provides more security than C++.
Because in Java, low-level failures either do not occur or are noticed by the Java Virtual Machine and sent to the program in the form of a “exception.” C++, on the other hand, is a language containing low-level features, such as unchecked array access, typing punning, or raw pointers that cannot be verified during compilation, resulting in low-level “buffer overflows.”
Java syntax has “context-free grammar” and can be quickly parsed with the assistance of “LALR Prayer,” however “parsing” C++ is a difficult operation. Furthermore, C++ supports namespace level constants, variables, and functions, whereas in Java, these things must belong to a certain type and be specified within that type.
In addition to running a compiled Java program, machines that run Java applications should, for the most part, also run the Java Virtual Machine, although C++ program that are already compiled run without the need for external software. This is because the program statements of these two closely related languages may compile by following a few machine guidelines using C++ while compiling into numerous byte codes involving several machine instructions each time when interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine.